Brain Polymicrogyria (PMG) is a brain malformation in which gyri are abnormally small and excessive in number and believed to initiate at the stage of the fetus. Well accepted mechanisms are abnormal migration of neuroblasts and defected maturation of cortical regions after the maturation. Over 40 genes have been associated with the disease. The fetal origin may occur due to infections, multiple gestations, and other pregnancy-related factors. Patients experience recurrent seizures, delayed growth, crossed eyes, speech disabilities, trouble swallowing, and muscle weakness.
1. Currently, there is no cure or medication for polymicrogyria. Since the disease is caused anatomically by abnormal migration of neuroblasts or error in cortical maturation after migration, it cannot be reversed. However, medications are available to treat a major symptom, epilepsy.
2. Antiepileptic drugs, including Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, Lamotrigine, Phenytoin, and Valproic acid provide temporary relief from seizures.
3. Alternatively, surgical procedures have shown a reduction of severity by up to 90%. Surgical interventions include resection and hemispherectomy.
4. 5. Resection refers to the removal of a part of the brain from where the seizures originate. The part is called epileptic foci. Resection is preferred when the PMG is focal.
When PMG is widespread, hemispherectomy is more suitable, and it refers to the removal, disconnection, or disabling of an entire half of the cerebrum.
Epilepsy,Intellectual deficits,Delayed development,Crossed eyes,Speech disabilities,Trouble swallowing,Muscle weakness
Antiepileptic drugs, including Carbamazepine, Oxcarbazepine, Lamotrigine, Phenytoin, and Valproic acid