This condition can be congenital (present at birth) or develop later in life. It is generally caused by disruption of the messages that are sent from the brain to the eyes.
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia is often caused by multiple sclerosis, trauma, or infarction.
External ophthalmoplegia is usually caused by muscle disorders or mitochondrial diseases such as Graves’ disease or Kearns-Sayre syndrome.
Other common causes include:
- thyroid disease
- brain injury
- brain tumor