Optic neuromyelitis, also known as Devic's disorder or neuromyelitis optica, is a central nervous system disease that primarily affects the eye and spinal cord. Effects on the eyes are referred to as optic neuritis, whereas those on the spinal cord are called myelitis. The clinical manifestations are blindness in one or both eyes, weakness or paralysis in the legs or arms, painful spasms, loss of sensation, uncontrollable vomiting, and hiccups, and bladder or bowel dysfunction from spinal cord damage.
Optic neuromyelitis has been extensively studied for links with different factors. The factors include
1. Autoimmune reactions
A person is said to be autoimmune when the person's immune system invades his own body. Devic's disease is an autoimmune condition. Few studies suggest a familial history of autoimmune disorders may increase the risk of optic myelitis.
A study conducted in 2018, reported evidence of lifestyle practices posing risks for the disease, including:
• Long-term smoking
• Passive smoking
• Long-term over-consumption of vodka and whiskey
These habits are likely to cause immunoglobulin IgG positivity. In addition, studies have shown links between smoking and the development of antibodies that may induce autoimmune reactions.
3. Over-consumption of saturated fatty acids
High levels of bad fats, such as animal fats, have been linked to the disease.
Blindness in one or both eyes,Weakness or paralysis in the legs or arms,Painful spasms,Loss of sensation,Uncontrollable vomiting and hiccups,Bladder or bowel dysfunction from spinal cord damage
Inflammation and deterioration of the portion of the optic nerve known as the optic disk
Immunosuppressive medications that may be prescribed include azathioprine (Imuran, Azasan), mycophenolate (Cellcept) or rituximab (Rituxan)